The "Lone Star State" Texas is located in the south of the USA and might be the only state, besides Vermont, which has been an independent republic before being announced US state. Texas is the second largest state following Alaska. Additionally it has the second largest number of inhabitants.
The capital Austin includes 786.382 inhabitants (in 2009). The state is divided into 254 counties and ranks 1st place regarding the number of counties within a state.
More than 11.000 years ago the first Native Americans settled in the area close to the Gulf of Mexico. Among them were three dominant tribes: the Pueblos close to the Rio Grande, the Mound builder close to the Mississippi and the Mesoamerican tribe in the south.
Today the U.S. government approves just three tribes; the Alabama-Coushatta, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas in Maverick county, and the Ysleta del Sur Pueblo in El Paso and Socorro. Those tribes have been recognized in the 60´s and 70´s.
The inhabitants declared Texas to become an independent republic on March 2nd 1836 and General Sam Housten to be their military commander-in-chief.
Consequentially the Mexican general Santa Anna occupied the capital of Texas in March 1836. Additionally took Alamo. In April the 1.600 Mexican besiegers were defeated by the Americans in the battle of San Jacinto under General Sam Houston´s leadership. General Santa Anna was taken into captivity and further attempts to attack failed in the following years.
France and the United Kingdom recognized Texas as independent republic on November 23rd 1839/14th November 1841. The first president of the republic was General Sam Housten (1856 -1861), who governed Texas until it joined the USA on February 19th 1845 at the request of the Texan population.
Texas became U.S. state on December 25th 1846 - a circumstance that led to the Mexican-American War, which was ended on February 2nd 1848 by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico waived the rights of Texas and the area between Rio Grande and the Nueces River. The Texan government decided to grant Mexico some of the land, which was incorporated to the Union beforehand.
The U.S. state Texas is mostly coined by German immigrants. In 1834 the German "Giessener Auswanderungsgesellschaft" and the "Verein zum Schutze deutscher Einwanderer in Texas" supported an organized German immigration. Most of the 100.000 German-speaking Texans settled in the centre of Texas, the so called „Texas Hill County" (German Hills, between Austin and San Antonio) Due to the influence of World War I the German language was ebbing.
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